Image 01 Source – City of Malmo, Project location, Bo01 (first phase)
CASE STUDY BACKGROUND
Malmo locates in the south west corner of Sweden. It is the nation’s third largest city and is now the world’s 4th greenest city claiming its ‘green’ credentials on the basis of the exceptionally high level of low and zero carbon technologies, and associated renewable energy resources. Bo01 is the first phase. It was part of an international housing exhibition that took place in 2001. And it will expand with Bo02 and Bo03 to 140 ha for 30,000 residents.
There are four main energy systems in Bo01:
- Geothermal Heat Pump System ——- Heat pump system provides 85% of energy needed for this region and it has a storage capacity of 2,500 MWh. The aquifer temperature maintains 10~11°C. The system equipped with ten cold and warm wells, which enable water keep cycling between them.
- Wind System ———- A 2 MW wind turbine delivers electricity directly into the local grid. It located in Norra Hamnen (the north harbor) and produces typically 6,000 kWh each year. It’s main function is to provide energy for heat pump use.
- Solar System ———– 1,400 m² of solar collectors, placed on top of ten of the buildings complement the heat produced by the heat pump to supply the area. 120 m² of solar collectors are directly connected to the district heating system, reducing the need for extra storage tanks. It can produce about 300,000 kWh per year,
- Bio-Gas & ANAEROBIC Digester System ———- It runs on food and other organic wastes from 600,000 households. It can generates 250,000 MWh annually, which meets electricity needs of 17,000 homes. 1,400 GwH of waste heat fed to district heating network reducing 40% of heating demand. The residue could be used for road construction. The system feeds into the gas grid, and is also used to fuel around 25% of public transport needs of the city.
Image 02 Source – Heat Pump System underground
Image 03 Source – Detailed composition of Heat pump
It include a cold well and a warm well, the minimum distance of two well is 200 meters. Water keep cycling in the two wells with the help of compressing by the heat pump.
Image 04 Source – Solar panel on the top of buildings
Image 05 Source – District Combined System
The heat pump generated the main electricity in the district system. Wind energy is used for powering the heat pump. Solar panel collected solar energy for residential use. Residential wastes are using for generating gas to power automobiles and the residue could be used for road construction.
Image 06 Source – Energy Flow of District Heating System
The combined energy system in Malmo brought a lot of benefits to residents in city of Malmo.
Geothermal heat pump system generates 5,800 MWh/year of heat and 5,000 MWh/year of cooling and 6,300 MWh/year of electricity, which can satisfy 80% of the energy needed in Malmo. Besides, it also saved a lot of public transit fuel and provided a great amount of job opportunities for local residents. Meanwhile, it also contribute to the waste treatment, storm-water management in the city.
In fact, the energy system construction has received help from numerous environmental programs, local organizations, government as well as the support from communities. The European Union has also given some support for the energy measures taken. What’s more, Lund University was actively associated to the project and developed highly energy efficient houses’ concepts. Now 90% of the 300,000 living in Malmö are connected to the heat district network.
Overall, the main stakeholders are citizens in Malmo, Sweden government, environmental organizations and programs in Malmo and the European Union.
By Andrea Salomon, Keertana Lingamaneni, and Yuxuan Chen